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APA: In-Text Citations & Reference List

APA

Reference List - 6th edition

  1. Begin your list of references on a new page at the end of the paper. Put the word References centered one inch from the top of the page.
  2. Double-space throughout.
  3. The preferred APA font is 12-point, Times New Roman.
  4. Have uniform margins of 1 inch (2.54 cm) on all sides.
  5. Type the first line of an entry flush left, and indent any additional lines one-half inch (5 spaces).  Use CTRL-T in Word for the hanging indent.
  6. Arrange Reference List entries in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author. Use only the initial(s) of the author's first name, not the full name, with a space between the initials. (e.g. Brown, J. A.)
  7. Do NOT re-alphabetize the author surnames within each reference.  Leave them in the order that they are listed on the article/book etc.
  8. With two or more authors, use an ampersand (&) before the last author’s name. Separate the names with commas.
  9. For two or more works by the same author, arrange the entries by year, the earliest first.
  10. Arrange two or more works by the same author in the same year alphabetically by title.
    • Add the letters “a,” “b,” etc. after the year, i.e. (2002a).
    • Do this also for articles in journals.
    • For articles in magazines and newspapers, use the full date in the Reference List & in-text citation: (2001a, July 7).
  11. If a work has no author or editor, move the title to the author position and alphabetize by the first word of the title other than A, An, or The.
  12. If a work has no date, use (n.d.).
  13. Italicize the titles and subtitles of books, but do not italicize article or chapter titles.
  14. Capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle (and all proper nouns). 
  15. Journal titles should have every major word capitalized.
     
  16. Italicize journal titles, comma, volume numbers. Do not italicize issue numbers (i.e., the number which appears in parentheses after the volume number).
  17. References cited in the text must appear in the reference list and vice versa. The only exceptions to this rule are:   original works cited in secondary sources; citing an entire journal issue; citing an entire website; and, citing personal communications.
     
  18. Keep or remove all hyperlinks in the Reference List.  Whichever you choose, be consistent.
  19. Many publishers now assign a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) to journal articles, which provide a persistent link to its location on the internet. Provide the DOI if it is available (even for print articles).   If you retrieved an article online, and, no DOI is available, provide the journal home page URL (do a Google search for the journal website).
  20. Abbreviations for “page” and “pages” (“p.” and “pp.”) are used before page numbers of newspaper articles and articles in edited books but not before page numbers of articles appearing in magazines and scholarly journals.

In-Text Citations

REMEMBER:  JIBC is sticking with the 6th edition until September 2020!

In-text citations appear within the text of your paper.  This is how you give credit to your sources  AND avoid plagiarism. 

Details here on HOW TO AVOID PLAGIARISM.

In-text citations may be either a "direct quote" or a paraphrase.

The main difference between a direct quote and a paraphrase is that a direct quote requires quotation marks and the page number(s) or other specific locator (i.e. paragraph number or section heading if no page numbers).  Put the closing punctuation (i.e. period) AFTER the page citation.

A paraphrase does not include quotation marks and may include a page or specific locator.  APA encourages the use of page/para/section heading, but it is not required.  (APA, 2010, p. 171).

If your direct quote is more than 40 words, indent the full quote 5-7 spaces, double-spaced, in the body of your paper, no quotation marks; cite the quoted source, with the page numbers, AFTER the final punctuation mark. (for examples, see p. 53 & 55 of:  APA: The easy way (2nd. ed).  BF 76.7 H68 2009 Reference & Circulating collection).

How many times do I cite within a paragraph?

Check this link from Kwantlen: In-text citation

Online Writing Lab (OWL) - Purdue University also has some great tips and tricks:

In-text citation basics

In-text citation details

University of Wisconsin - Madison even more great quoting and paraphrasing tips!

 

Examples:

Direct Quote

Watson (2007) explained that, "it is very important to learn how to cite using the APA style" (p.22).

According to the librarian, "it is very important to learn how to cite using the APA style" (Watson, 2007, p.22).

Paraphrase (include page/para/section heading if available)

According to Appleby and Peach (2006), fruits and vegetables are generally accepted as the healthiest food choices.

Fruits and vegetables are generally accepted as the healthiest food choices (Appleby & Peach, 2006).

 

Quotation Marks or Italicized Font (APA Manual 4.07 & 4.08; OWL Purdue In-text Basics)

When mentioning a full work such as a book, movie, journal in-text, use italicized font: 

In The Wizard of Oz, Dorothy and Toto are chased by .....

The journal Fire Technology includes peer-reviewed articles....

When mentioning an article or book chapter title in-text, use quotation marks:

Riger's (1992) article, "Epistemological Debates, Feminist Voices:  Science, Social Values, and the Study of Women," shows that .....

 

For full details on in-text citations, refer to Chapter 6.03, pages 169-179 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association [APA Manual], 6th ed, 2010.  BF 76.7 P83 2010 (JIBC Library Reference)