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APA: Unpublished & Informal Works

APA

Unpublished & Informal Works - 6th edition

Unpublished personal communications (emails, interviews, letters, class notes, etc) are not included in the Reference List as they are unrecoverable by other researchers.  For example, as Blackboard requires a login, class notes/handouts within Blackboard are not recoverable by others.  If handouts/PDFs are publicly available, DO include in your Reference List.

 

DO include all  "personal communications" as in-text citations.  See the examples below.

Email (Direct Quote)
Citation in Text

He stated that, “ … “ (G. Whyte, personal communication, November 30, 2009). OR G. Whyte (personal communication,

November 30, 2009) stated that “ …

Email (Paraphrase)
Citation in Text

… (G. Whyte, personal communication, November 30, 2009) OR G. Whyte (personal communication, November 30, 2009)

stated that … 

Interview (Direct Quote)
Citation in Text

He stated that, “ … “ (A. Charbonneau, personal communication, December 8, 2009) OR A. Charbonneau (personal communication,

December 8, 2009) stated that “ … “

Interview (Paraphrase)
Citation in Text

… (A. Charbonneau, personal communication, December 8, 2009) OR A. Charbonneau (personal communication, December 8, 2009) stated that … 

Listserv

Booker, M. E. (2007, May 7). Re: APA Citation [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from

   http://lists.ala.org/wws/info/ili-l

Citation in Text: (Booker, 2007) or Booker (2007) …

Note: Refer to as electronic mailing list. If you don’t know where the list is archived, leave blank