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APA: Tables, Figures and Images

APA

Introducing: Tables, Figures and Images - 6th edition

You will sometimes locate a specific table or figure or image within an article or book which "says it all."

It may clearly and concisely summarize something you are trying to describe.  It may add authority and relevance to your paper.  You really want to use it!  You also really need to ensure you cite it correctly!

Follow this guideline and you will be well on your way to giving proper credit to those authors who created that table, figure or image!

The image might be a chart, graph, picture, clip art, photograph, infographic, figure, or table, and it might come from an article, a book, a report, or a website.

When your paper includes a table, figure or image that you have copied from another source, it must include a  "copyright statement."

If it is a table, the copyright statement goes at the end of the general table note.  If the image is anything else, it is considered a figure...and the copyright statement goes at the end of the figure caption (APA Style Blog, 2016, Navigating Copyright, Part 4).

See the APA Style Blog & Kwantlen links below for more examples and details!

Giving Credit

First of all, if you want to read all the details, check the APA Style Blog series on "How to Cite an Image from Another Source."

Here is the nutshell version:

1.  In some cases, you will need to get permission of the copyright holder.  However, this is not necessary if :

i.   the purpose of the use is scholarly comment, noncommercial research, or educational use and
ii.  full credit is given to the author and publisher as copyright holder

2.  APA allows reproduction of tables/figures without permission:

i.  up to three tables or figures from a journal article or book chapter, or,

ii.  a maximum of five tables or figures from a whole book

Let's try an example.

Say you have read an article which includes a table you want to use.   You will need to provide a copyright statement below the table, as well as cite it in-text and in the Reference List.

Here is the table with corresponding copyright statement that you must include below the table:

Note. From "Acute Clinical Care for Transgender Patients:  A Review," by N. Rosendale, S. Goldman, G. M. Ortiz and L. A. Haber, 2018, JAMA Internal Medicine, 178(11), p. 1536.  Copyright 2018 by the American Medical Association.

Reference List entry:

Rosendale, N., Goldman, S., Ortiz, G. M. & Haber, L. A.  (2018).  Acute clinical care for transgender patients: 

A review. JAMA Internal Medicine, 178(11), 1535-1543.  doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.4179

In-text citation 

You have a few options as to how to cite this in-text.

One option is:

First citation: 

Rosendale, Goldman, Ortiz and Haber (2018) include a table which defines gender identity terms, reproduced here as Table 1.

Another option: 

The term gender can be understood as meaning “definition goes here” (Rosendale, Goldman, Ortiz & Haber, 2018, p. 1536; see also Table 1)

Subsequent citations could be:

Rosendale et al., (2018) …….

Rosendale et al., (2018, p. 1536; see also Table 1)

 

Citing an image such as a picture, photo or clip art can be slightly different than citing a table or figure.

Always remember that you must include a copyright statement for the image and, in some cases, seek permission from the copyright holder.

It is highly recommended to use an image that is not copyrighted.

Here are some ways to ensure you are not infringing copyright.

1.  Check the Terms & Conditions or Conditions of Use associated with the image. Some Conditions will explicitly state that the image may be used for non-commercial and/or educational purposes.  And, some may NOT!  

For example, if you find an image of a taser on the Amazon.com site, you may see a statement such as "Images may be subject to copyright"

If you then go to the Amazon site and check the Conditions of Use, you will read under Copyright:

"All content included in or made available through any Amazon Service, such as text, graphics, logos, button icons, images, audio clips, digital downloads, data compilations, and software is the property of Amazon or its content suppliers and protected by United States and international copyright laws. The compilation of all content included in or made available through any Amazon Service is the exclusive property of Amazon and protected by U.S. and international copyright laws."

In the example above, you will be infringing Copyright if you use the image from this site, even if you credit the source.

2.  Find your images by searching Google Images:

i.  Settings - Advanced Search

ii. Apply the USAGE RIGHTS option - Free to use or share

iii. You still need to credit your source, but you will not need to seek permission.

iv. Include statement such as:  In the public domain; or, the Creative Commons License (CC) associated with the image (example below)

From "XEW-Taser MKIA," by Wolff60, 2018 (https://www.deviantart.com/wolff60/art/XEW-Taser-MKIA-95379419). CC BY-NC-ND 3.0

Reference list entry for this image would be:

Wolff60. (2018).  XEW-Taser MKIA.  Retrieved from https://www.deviantart.com/wolff60/art/XEW-Taser-MKIA-95379419