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APA Citations   Tags: apa citation  

Tips & examples to help you create APA citations for articles, books, Internet sources, and more. From the 6th edition of the APA Manual.
Last Updated: Nov 27, 2015 URL: Print Guide RSS Updates

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RefWorks is a web-based citation management tool that will help you organize and manage your references.  It will give you a great start on creating an APA-style Reference List and in-text citations.  Remember, you still need to double-check your citations.

Once you go to RefWorks on the JIBC Library page, you will need to sign-up for a RefWorks account.  Once you do that, you will be able to access your RefWorks account no matter where you are, as long as you go through the JIBC Library website.

You will need the Library User ID and Password to access RefWorks if you are off-campus.

Free Online Formatting

Double check each citation against the examples in this guide!


JIBC's APA Citation Guide

The American Psychological Association (APA) style is the set of rules that the APA maintains for writing research papers and citing your sources.

It is one of the most common citation styles in the sciences & social sciences and is used at the JIBC.

For more detailed information, consult the APA 6th edition manual or other APA books at the library. Also feel free to talk with a librarian for more help.

Be sure to check this APA TUTORIAL for help in formatting your essay - it shows you how to structure and format your essay, recommends ways to reduce bias, identifies how to avoid plagiarism, shows how to cite references in-text, and provides selected reference examples.

REMEMBER:  it is very important to cite your sources IN-TEXT as well as in your Reference List.  Use this Subject Guide to help you format your IN-TEXT citations and Reference List.

Check the ACADEMIC INTEGRITY  guide to ensure you avoid plagiarism.  A great source which includes tips and tricks for quoting and paraphrasing.

In-Text Citations

For full details, refer to Chapter 6.03, pages 170-171 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed, 2010.  BF 76.7 P83 2010 (JIBC Library Reference)

In-text citations appear within the text of your paper.  This is how you give credit to your sources (i.e. the books/articles/websites you have used).  In-text citations may be either a "direct quote" or a paraphrase.

The main difference between a direct quote and a paraphrase is that, for a direct quote, you must include quotation marks and the page number(s) or other specific locator (i.e. paragraph number if a website).  Put the closing punctuation (i.e. period) AFTER the page citation.

If your direct quote is more than 40 words, indent the full quote 5-7 spaces, double-spaced, in the body of your paper, no quoation marks; cite the quoted source, with the page numbers, AFTER the final punctuation mark. (for examples, see p. 53 & 55 of:  APA: The easy way (2nd. ed).  BF 76.7 H68 2009 Reference & Circulating collection)

Note that a page or paragraph number is now encouraged (APA, 2010, p.171) when you paraphrase or summarize from a source, and required when you quote directly from a source.


Direct Quote

Watson (2007) explained that, "it is very important to learn how to cite using the APA style" (p.22).

According to the librarian, "it is very important to learn how to cite using the APA style" (Watson, 2007, p.22).


According to Appleby and Peach (2006), fruits and vegetables are generally accepted as the healthiest food choices.

Fruits and vegetables are generally accepted as the healthiest food choices (Appleby & Peach, 2006).



    Your Reference List

    1. Begin your list of references on a new page at the end of the paper. Put the word References centered about one inch from the top of the page.
    2. Double-space throughout.
    3. Type the first line of an entry flush left, and indent any additional lines one-half inch (5 spaces).
    4. For an annotated bibliography, add a brief abstract in block format after the citation. Start the abstract on a new line and indent it an additional 2 spaces.
    5. Alphabetize the reference list by the last names of the authors (or editors).
    6. Invert all authors’ names and use initials instead of first names. With two or more authors, use an ampersand (&) before the last author’s name. Separate the names with commas. Include a space between authors’ initials if more than one name (i.e. Brown, J. A.)
    7. For two or more works by the same author, arrange the entries by year, the earliest first.
    8. Arrange two or more works by the same author in the same year alphabetically by title.
      1. Add the letters “a,” “b,” etc. after the year, i.e. (2002a).
      2. Do this also for articles in journals.
      3. For articles in magazines and newspapers, use the full date in the reference list: (2001a, July 7).
    9. If a work has no author or editor, move the title to the author position and alphabetize by the first word of the title other than A, An, or The.
    10. Italicize the titles and subtitles of books, but do not italicize article or chapter titles.
    11. Capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle (and all proper nouns). Capitalize names of periodicals as you would capitalize them normally.
    12. Many publishers now assign a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) to journal articles, which provide a persistent link to its location on the internet. Provide the DOI if it is available. Reference to the database is no longer necessary with a DOI.
    13. Abbreviations for “page” and “pages” (“p.” and “pp.”) are used before page numbers of newspaper articles and articles in edited books but not before page numbers of articles appearing in magazines and scholarly journals.

    DOI = Digital Object Identifier

    What is a DOI?

    A DOI is a digital object identifier – a unique alphanumeric code that gives a persistent link to the web location for an electronic item. DOIs are commonly seen on current electronic journal articles, but are also often included in the print version of the article.

    Example: doi:10.1080/14622200410001676305 or


    • Use a DOI (if assigned to the article) in citing articles whether accessed in the print or electronic form.
    • If you cannot locate a DOI, then use the JOURNAL homepage URL (e.g. Retrieved from

    How do I find the DOI for an article?

    1. Check the first page of the article for a DOI.

    2. DOIs are often included in database records. If you're searching a library database like Academic Search Premier, and if a DOI is assigned to an article, you will find it in the database record for that article.

    3. Check for the doi

    4. DOIs may also be found in the bibliography of an article. If you find a DOI in a bibliography and want to find the actual article (or further citation information), you need to use a DOI resolver (see: ).


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