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APA: Sneak Peek 7th ed. Best bet


Introducing the 7th edition

The JIBC will be adopting the APA 7th edition in September 2020

For a sneak peek of some of the changes, read on!

This Sneak Peek is a work-in-progress.  Stay tuned for more details and the full guide, with examples, over the Summer of 2020!

Section numbers below refer to the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).

Format Your Paper in 7th Edition Style


Student papers (sec 2.2)
  • Always check with your instructor for specific directions.
Fonts (sec 2.19)
  • There are more font options available with this new edition i.e. no longer limited to Times New Roman.
  • Acceptable font styles include:  10-point Lucida Sans Unicode; 11-point Calibri, Arial, Georgia; 12-point Times New Roman.
Title page (student papers) (sec 2.8)
  • No longer require the label Running head: on the title page.
  • No longer require the title (or shortened title) to appear in the header section on each page. 
  • Page number top-right of each page (Title page is page 1).
  • Word count may be required by instructor.  If so, it appears below the due date.
  • See Sample Paper for details.
One space or two? (sec 6.1)
  • One space after a period at the end of a sentence!

In-text and References in 7th Edition Style

References page (sec. 2.12)
  • The references page is a separate page, with the word References bold and centred.
Authors (sec 8.17, sec 9.8)
  • For one or two authors, include the author name(s) in every in-text citation.
  • For three or more authors, ALL in-text citations of a work will list only the first author, followed by et al. 
  • The reference entry now lists up to 20 authors for a single work. If a work has 21 or more authors, then the first 19 will show up in the reference entry, followed by, . . . final author.
  • If author and publisher are the same, the name only appears in author field.  Omit publisher from the reference. No longer include the term Author in publisher field. (9.29).
  • Group authors:  when numerous layers of an agency are listed as the author, use the most specific agency as the reference list entry (except if this causes confusion, for example, if a Canadian and U.S. agency have the same name).  The parent agencies will appear in the publisher field.  (9.11).
DOIs & URLs (sec 9.35-9.36)
  • Present DOIs and URLs as hyperlinks (i.e. http:// or https://)
  • Acceptable format: or
  • Either blue-font underlined, or plain text, not underlined (be consistent throughout your paper).
  • Long/complicated URLs or DOIs may be shortened:
    • or

Books (sec 9.28)

  • Location is no longer required in the reference entry.
  • Provide Publisher name only.  If imprint or division is provided, use that as the publisher.
  • Publisher name should appear as shown on the work you used
    • Example:  SAGE or Sage Publications – both may appear in your reference list.
  • In instances where author & publisher are the same, the final element of the reference list entry will either be the title of the book; or, if the book has a doi, the doi will follow the title and will end the entry.
    • Example: print book, author & publisher the same, no doi:
      • American Psychological Association.  (2010).  Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.).
    • Example:  print book, author & publisher the same, with doi:
      • American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).
  • If a print book has a doi, then doi follows publisher name.
  • eBooks:
    • if doi available, it follows publisher name:  Publisher.
    • if from Library database and NO DOI, then publisher name only.
    • if from publisher or vendor website and NO DOI:  Example:  Publisher.
  • Remember:  If author and publisher are the same, the name only appears in author field.  Omit publisher from the reference. No longer include the term Author in publisher field. (9.29).

Articles (sec. 9.34-9.36)

  • Articles from a Library database, with NO DOI, will have NO retrieval information. These references will look the same as a print source.  It is no longer necessary to provide the journal homepage URL.
  • Articles from a website with NO DOI will link directly to the cited source if possible.  Do NOT include the statement Retrieved from.
  • Article number may replace page range in reference list, following the issue number.   
    • Example:  Journal Title, 12(4), Article e012345.
    • If the article PDF includes page numbers, use them in the in-text citations, but not in the reference list.  (9.27).
Websites (sec. 9.2 & 9.33)
  • New way of thinking for 7th editiontreat a work as a website or webpage ONLY IF it does not fit into a category such as a book, an article, a video, a report, etc.  
  • Use of italicized font for website/webpage title is most common. 
  • Use as specific date as possible for all websites. Previously year only was used for most web sources.
  • No longer include the statement Retrieved from in front of a URL.
  • After providing author name, date, title of webpage, provide the website name followed by a period and URL.
    • Ziang, M. (2020, April 22).  The reason Zoom calls drain your energy.  BBC
  • Although some websites and webpages do change over time, they do provide stable / archived versions to their material.  In these cases, a retrieval date is not needed. 
    • Example: Wikipedia articles do include an archived link, so no retrieval date is required. (9.16, 10.3 #49)
      • The archived link for a Wikipedia article is found under View History - Click on specific date.
  • Only include Retrieved from date in your reference list if the source you are using is designed to change regularly (e.g. Dynamed, UpToDate, Facebook, Twitter, online dictionary or encyclopedia entry).  The format would be Retrieved April 27, 2020, from https://xxx

Blackboard Learning Management System (sec 10.14 #102)

  • PowerPoint slides or lecture notes posted in Blackboard:
    • If the readers of your paper will have access to the resource, provide the name of the site and its URL (if login required, provide URL to the login page).
    • If no official title, provide a descriptive title with format in square brackets.
      • Example:  Sheppard, V. (2020, May 4).  Conducting research. [PowerPoint slides, RESM-2100].  Blackboard.
Indigenous knowledge (sec 8.9)
  • New guidance on how to cite recorded or unrecorded traditional knowledge of Indigenous Peoples
  • In a nutshell, it depends if the information is recorded (recoverable) or unrecorded (unrecoverable).
  • If recoverable, cite it in-text and in the reference list as you would any other type of source (e.g. if you watched a YouTube video then cite it as such).
  • If not recoverable, then treat as personal communication:
    • Provide the person’s full name and the nation or specific Indigenous group to which they belong, their location, followed by the words personal communication, date.
    • Include the date of the communication (exact date or range of dates).
    • Ensure that the person agrees to have their name & the information included in your paper.
    • Because there is no recoverable source, there will be NO reference list entry.