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APA Central

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JIBC's APA Citation Guide

The American Psychological Association (APA) style is the set of rules that the APA maintains for writing research papers and citing your sources.

The purpose of citing your sources is to:  give credit to your sources AND to avoid plagiarism.

For more detailed information, consult the APA 6th edition manual or other APA books at the library. Also feel free to talk with a librarian for more help.

Be sure to check this APA TUTORIAL for help in formatting your essay - it shows you how to structure and format your essay, recommends ways to reduce bias, identifies how to avoid plagiarism, shows how to cite references in-text, and provides selected reference examples.

REMEMBER:  it is very important to cite your sources IN-TEXT as well as in your Reference List.  Use this Subject Guide to help you format your IN-TEXT citations and Reference List.

Check the ACADEMIC INTEGRITY  guide to ensure you avoid plagiarism.  A great source which includes tips and tricks for quoting and paraphrasing.

What Kinds of Sources Do I Document?

  • Direct quotations from a book, article, film, letter, email, lecture, etc.
  • Ideas you draw from a source but present entirely in your own words
  • Paraphrases and summaries of books, journal articles, pamphlets
  • Single words, short phrases, sentences and longer passages quoted from books or articles
  • Statistics
  • Legislation 

Useful Links

APA Paper Template

Use this template as a guide. 

NOTE: Your instructor may have specific requirements, which will override this template.

DOI = Digital Object Identifier

What is a DOI?

A DOI is a digital object identifier – a unique alphanumeric code that gives a persistent link to the web location for an electronic item. DOIs are commonly seen on current electronic journal articles, but are also often included in the print version of the article.

Example: doi:10.1080/14622200410001676305 or


  • Use a DOI (if assigned to the article) in citing articles whether accessed in the print or electronic form.
  • If you cannot locate a DOI, then use the JOURNAL homepage URL (e.g. Retrieved from

How do I find the DOI for an article?

1. Check the first page of the article for a DOI.

2. DOIs are often included in database records. If you're searching a library database like Academic Search Complete, and if a DOI is assigned to an article, you will find it in the database record for that article.

3. Check for the doi

4. DOIs may also be found in the bibliography of an article. If you find a DOI in a bibliography and want to find the actual article (or further citation information), you need to use a DOI resolver (see: ).


RefWorks is a web-based citation management tool that will help you organize and manage your references.  It will give you a great start on creating an APA-style Reference List and in-text citations.  Remember, you still need to double-check your citations.

Once you go to RefWorks on the JIBC Library page, you will need to sign-up for a RefWorks account.  Once you do that, you will be able to access your RefWorks account no matter where you are, as long as you go through the JIBC Library website.

You will need the Library User ID and Password to access RefWorks if you are off-campus.