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APA 7th edition: Home

APA 7th edition

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The American Psychological Association (APA) Style sets out the rules for writing research papers and citing sources.

The purposes of citing are to:  credit your sources, avoid plagiarism, help your readers find your sources, and, give credibility to you papers.

See the AVOID PLAGIARISM box below for tips on what needs to be cited.

APA Print Guide

Other Resources

REFWORKS - web-based citation management tool - organize your references and produce an APA Reference List!

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REMEMBER:  cite your sources IN-TEXT as well as in your Reference List.  

Avoid Plagiarism

Check the ACADEMIC INTEGRITY  guide to ensure you avoid plagiarism.  It includes tips and tricks for quoting and paraphrasing.
Here is what you need to cite:
  • Paraphrases (summaries) and direct quotations from:
    • books, articles, films, reports, websites, social media, letters, interviews, Elders, lectures, and more!
  • Ideas you draw from a source but present entirely in your own words (paraphrase)
  • Single words, short phrases, sentences and longer passages quoted from books or articles
  • Statistics
  • Legislation 

DOI = Digital Object Identifier

What is a DOI?

A DOI is a digital object identifier – a unique alphanumeric code that gives a persistent link to the web location for an electronic item. DOIs are commonly seen on current electronic journal articles, but are also sometimes included in the print version of the article.  Books may also include a DOI.

Example: or


  • Use a DOI  in citing articles and books whether accessed in the print or electronic form.
  • Follow APA guidelines in this Subject Guide if you cannot find a DOI.

How do I find the DOI for an article?

1. Check the first page of the article for a DOI (top and bottom corners are common placement areas).

2. DOIs are often included in database records. If you're searching the library databases, and if a DOI is assigned to an article or book, you will find it near the bottom of the abstract for that item (click on the article title to see the abstract).

3. Check for the doi.

4. DOIs may also be found in the bibliography of an article. If you find a DOI in a bibliography and want to find the actual article (or further citation information), you need to use a DOI resolver (see: ).